Artillery Fire Discipline Book Pdf
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The ability to plot and derive information for a target accurately was also impaired. Although they could derive range, bearing, and some charge information, they often did not correctly compute the amount of charge. In addition, they did not correct their information for any change in the environment. They did not take into account the effect of terrain, weather, gas masks, smoke or smoke screens, illumination, obscuration, battle damage, or casualties. Their information was not corrected for any distance, deflection or aberration. Thus, an error of 1 degree of arc was considered to be the same as an error of 1/2 mile. Banderet (2000) also found that the information derived was inaccurate and sometimes contradictory. He found that under some circumstances, the FDC could not derive any information for a target and, thus, if the target was not fired upon, could not make any correction to the situation map. Because the situation map is continually changing, the FDC team that tries to plot and derive information from it will face many problems and potential errors, and Banderet et al. (1981) concluded that FDC teams are not very reliable and that, under some circumstances, no reliable information can be derived. The implications of this and other studies are that if an FDC team is sitting passively on a fire mission, the request for fire or call for fire will not be followed up by the FDC team, no matter how urgent the situation may be. Because of the disadvantages of fire missions, preplanned targets are preferred, and the FDC will be requested by higher headquarters to assign a specific team at a fixed time and/or time zone to preplanned targets.
As early as 1956, various attempts were made to produce a system that would allow the FDC to deduce the location of a target and to correct its information for deflection, aberration, and distance. By the early 1960's, and especially in the mid 1960's, these efforts culminated in the development of the Lidar that fired back a pulsed beam of light, which was reflected off a target and, by measuring the time between the transmitted and reflected pulses, it was possible to determine the distance to and location of the target. The Lidar was used in real time (i.e., the operator at the guns could see the Lidar display and respond immediately) to direct fire.
A target location is a point in the immediate terrain. It may be a specific feature, such as a man-made structure, or it may be an area of activity, such as a compound or an encampment. Targets may be called in on the fly, as they are seen, or they may be called in for firing upon at a later time. Targets may be called in either by name or by number. In the latter case, the FDC plots the location of the target. The FDC is able to plot many targets simultaneously. The location of the target is entered on a situation map and cleared to make sure that the plotted location is not that of a hospital, school, church, etc. (Figure 6.3). At the time of calling in the target location, the FDC should be able to determine the time, type of projectile, and other necessary information. This information is entered on the situation map and the target is cleared. The target is labeled with appropriate symbols. If any observations are made, these are also entered on the situation map. All information collected on the situation map is reviewed immediately upon receipt. The main thing is to enter all target information on the map. This data is then held until the call for fire is received. In the case of fire missions, the FDC is able to immediately enter the target location on a situation map in the forward observer's situation map block (Figure 6.4). 827ec27edc